Other Publications

Howard, P, Thompson, I. and Waterton, E. The Routledge Companion to Landscape Studies. London, Routledge, 2012

Landscape, as a concept,  does not respect disciplinary boundaries. Indeed, many academic disciplines have found the concept so important that they have used it as the qualifier that delineates whole sub-disciplines: landscape ecology, landscape planning, landscape archaeology, and so forth. In other cases, landscape studies progress under broader banner, such as heritage studies or cultural geography. Yet it does not always mean the same thing in all of these contexts. It is in light of this breadth that The Routledge Companion to Landscape Studies offers the first comprehensive attempt to explore the many uses and meanings of landscape.

The Companion contains thirty-nine original contributions from leading scholars within the field, which have been divided into  four parts: Experiencing Landscape; Landscape Culture and Heritage; Landscape, Society and Justice; and Design and Planning for Landscape.  Topics covered range from phenomenological approaches to landscape, to the consideration of landscape as a repository of human culture; from ideas of identity and belonging, to issues of power and hegemony; and from discussions of participatory planning and design to the call for new imaginaries in a time of global and environmental crisis.  Each contribution explores the future development of different conceptual and theoretical approaches, as well as recent empirical contributions to knowledge and understanding. Collectively, they encourage dialogue across disciplinary barriers and reflection upon the implications of research findings for local, national and international policy in relation to landscape.

The volume provides up-to-date critical reviews of state of the art perspectives across this multifaceted field, embracing disciplines such as anthropology, archaeology, cultural studies, landscape planning, landscape architecture, countryside management, forestry, heritage studies, ecology, and fine art.  It will thusserve as an invaluable point of reference for scholars, researchers and graduate students alike engaging in the field of landscape studies.


Brace, C. and Johns-Putra, A.G., Process: Landscape and Text, Amsterdam, Rodopi, 2010

The essays in this volume explore the relationship between landscape and literary text, paying particular attention to the process of writing rather than the finished text. These essays represent approaches to understanding the ephemeral practices of the writing process and the ways in which the different sites at which creative inspiration occurs impact on the literary text. They deal too with the possibility of a reciprocal relationship between geographical forms and textual forms: the material experience of landscape shapes textual practices, while the literary constructions of landscape in turn inform perceptions of landscape.

The essays in this volume explore the relationship between landscape and literary text, paying particular attention to the process of writing rather than the finished text. These essays represent approaches to understanding the ephemeral practices of the writing process and the ways in which the different sites at which creative inspiration occurs impact on the literary text. They deal too with the possibility of a reciprocal relationship between geographical forms and textual forms: the material experience of landscape shapes textual practices, while the literary constructions of landscape in turn inform perceptions of landscape.

Brady, E., Aesthetics of the Natural Environment, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003

A new statement of how beauty in nature is understood and appreciated. Aesthetic experience is one of the fundamental ways that we develop a relationship to our natural surroundings. Emily Brady provides a comprehensive study of this type of experience and the central philosophical issues related to it, developing her own original theory of aesthetic appreciation of nature. She provides useful background to the current debate and an up-to-date critical appraisal of contemporary theories. The context of the contemporary debate is laid out through a discussion of aesthetic experience and aesthetic qualities; early theories of aesthetic appreciation of nature, including the beautiful, the sublime, and the picturesque; and differences between artistic and environmental appreciation and interpretation. Brady situates her own approach in relation to a set of noncognitive accounts of appreciation. Her integrated aesthetic brings together various features of appreciation, including the senses, emotion, and imagination, with a reappraisal of the concept of disinterestedness. These ideas are further developed within the more practical domains of aesthetic judgment and education of the environment and through an examination of the role of aesthetic value in environmental conservation.

Peter Howard, Landscapes: the artists’ vision, London, Routledge, 1991

Using an analysis of the landscape paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition from 1769 onwards, the book focuses on the rapid shifts of landscape preference displayed by artists over 200 years. Six major periods are identified, each of approximately forty years, from the emphasis on Classical landscape in the 18th century, through the Picturesque to 1830 and then the Romantic wooded landscape. After 1870 is a major shift to Heroic landscapes of moorland, fen and fishing harbour, which becomes softer in the Vernacular period after 1910, and then more geometrical with the Formal landscapes after World War Two.

Peter Howard and Thymio Papayannis (eds) Natural Heritage: At the interface of Nature and Culture, London, Routledge, 2007

This is a collection of papers from issues of the International Journal of Heritage Studies, which Howard founded in 1992 and edited until 2007. In many countries there has been little cooperation between those responsible for the historic heritage (who have largely been responsible for the emergence of Heritage Studies) and those concerned with the natural. This attempt to bridge that divide uses essays that stress the commonalities, including in the Everglades, with the WWF and in Education.

Peter Howard, Heritage: management, interpretation, identity, London, Continuum, 2003

Heritage Studies, of which landscape and its conservation is a vital part, has so far been a disparate study. Here, in a book intended as a text for undergraduates, there is an attempt to impose a general structure onto the emerging discipline. The suggestion here is that there are four doors to the room of heritage discourse. One is to divide heritage into its many fields, from tigers to cathedrals, but this is a divisive study. A second door, much more cohesive, is to study the markets for heritage, the stakeholders, and a third door examines the level of identity being supported by heritage. Finally heritage is a process, and the disparate fields of heritage often follow a similar process of stages.

Brian Graham and Peter Howard (eds) The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008

A volume of specially commissioned essays, all examining the research agenda into the many fields and disciplines where heritage is involved with identity. Many essays are specifically concerned with landscape issues, such as that by Olwig on Natural Landscapes, Groote and Haartsen on Creating Place Identities, Alderman on place naming, Atkinson on mundane places, and Krauss on participation.

Peter Howard, Learning Landscapes, Aldershot, Ashgate, forthcoming

The definition of ‘landscape’ within the European Landscape Convention is used in part one this undergraduate text as the common destination of a wide variety of meanings of landscape, not only in English. With ‘perception’ firmly established as the critical feature, part two then analyses the various factors influencing human perceptions, such as nationality and education. The Convention’s classification of conservation, management and enhancement are used to structure a final section on how we deal with landscapes.

Pratt, V. with Howarth, J. and Brady, E., Environment and Philosophy, London and New York: Routledge, 2000

Environment and Philosophy provides an accessible introduction to the radical challenges that environmentalism pose to concepts that have become almost second nature in the modern world. Written in an accessible way for those without a background in philosophy, this text examines ways of thinking about ourselves, nature and our relationship with nature.

Olwig, K., Landscape, Nature and the Body Politic: From Britain’s Renaissance to America’s New World, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press. 2002

Landscape, Nature, and the Body Politic explores the origins and lasting influences of two contesting but intertwined discourses that persist today when we use the words landscape, country, scenery, nature, national. In the first sense, the land is a physical and bounded body of terrain upon which the nation state is constructed (e.g., the purple mountain majesties above the fruited plain, from sea to shining sea). In the second, the country is constituted through its people and established through time and precedence (e.g., land where our fathers died, land of the Pilgrims’ pride). Kenneth Olwig’s extended exploration of these discourses is a masterful work of scholarship both broad and deep, which opens up new avenues of thinking in the areas of geography, literature, theatre, history, political science, law, and environmental studies.

Jones, M. and Olwig, K. eds., Nordic Landscapes: Region and Belonging on the Northern Edge of Europe, Minneapolis, The University of Minnesota Press, 2008

“Norden”-the region along the northern edge of Europe bordered by Russia and the Baltic nations to the east and by North America to the west-is a particularly fruitful site for the examination of the ever-evolving meaning of landscape and region as place. Contributors to this work reveal how Norden’s regions and people have been defined by and against the dominant culture of Europe while at the same time their landscapes and cultures have shaped and inspired Europe’s ways of life. Together, the essays provide a much-needed picture of this culturally rich and geographically varied part of the world.

Mitchell, D. and Olwig, K. eds., Justice, Power and the Political Landscape, London, Routledge, 2008

Landscape is now on the agenda in a new way. The increasing interest in justice, power and the political landscape expresses a sea change occurring in the meaning of landscape itself, from landscape as scenery to landscape as polity and place. As Lionella Scazzosi argues “The meaning of the term ‘landscape’ has become broader than that of a view or panorama, which characterized many national protection laws and policies until the middle of the 20th century, and that of environment or nature, to which it has often been limited during the recent years of environmentalist battles.” This is reflected in the new European Landscape Convention, for which: “’Landscape’ means an area, as perceived by people.” The tide thus has turned towards J. B. Jackson’s view of landscape as not “a scenic or ecological entity but as a political or cultural entity, changing in the course of history.” It is in this socio-political context that it becomes necessary to consider the role of power, and the importance of justice, in the shaping of the landscape as an area of practice and performance with both cultural and environmental implications.

Palang, H. and Fry, G, eds., Landscape Interfaces: Cultural Heritage in Changing Landscapes, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Press, 2003

The book contributes to the relatively extensive study of landscapes by exploring the interfaces in the landscape. Instead of taking a viewpoint of some of the disciplines we try to map the links between them, indicate points for common understanding and cooperation. These interfaces happen between different cultures, between natural and human sciences, past and present, lay people and experts, time and space, preservation and use, ecology and semiosis. It compares how different cultures interpret landscapes, how cultural values are assessed, explores new tools for assessment, picks up the discussion about landscape authenticity, and finally draws perspectives for further research. It is not a textbook on its own, rather it is additional reading for any course dealing with landscapes on advanced levels, for geographers, landscape ecologists, landscape architects and everybody concerned with landscapes.

Gold, J.R. and Revill, G., Representing the Environment, Routledge, 2004

Representing Environments offers an introductory guide through the representations of the environment found in everyday life encounters, in nature, culture, representation, landscape, art and in the media. Featuring case studies from across Europe, America, Japan, Australia and elsewhere, the book explains how to interpret historic and contemporary representations and explores major themes in their development: the rural idyll, wilderness, advertising, television, and artists and their collaboration with environmental movements.

Pepper, D.M., Revill, G. and Webster, F. eds., Environmentalism: Critical Concepts, (volumes I – V), London: Routledge, 2002

Modern environmentalism is now over 50 years old. These articles reflect its coming of age, providing wide-ranging coverage of the state and scope of environmentalism from its science-driven, physical geography-focused roots to its spread to social science and cultural studies. The articles and accompanying commentaries provide insight into the critical areas of debate in the field’s development. A detailed index is provided to guide the reader through the material.

Gold, J.R. and Revill, G. eds., Landscapes of Defence, Prentice Hall, 2000

This is a key text on the very topical themes of power, defence and space. Landscapes of Defence is an exciting collection of theoretical and empirical material from very well known contributors, designed to help students understand how landscapes of defence fit in with some of the broader concepts of space, power and place to which they are introduced in the 1st year. The book is split into four sections, and each section contains an introduction placing the subsequent chapters in context. There is also a comprehensive introduction and afterword to tie the book’s broad themes together. 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates in urban and cultural geography will be the key market for this title, as well as strong secondary market in departments of Sociology, Anthropology, Law and Planning.

Taylor K & Lennon J., Managing Cultural Landscapes¸ London and NY Routledge, 2011 (forthcoming)

This book will be the first in the second set of five volumes in the series on ‘Key Issues in Cultural Heritage’ (General eds: William Logan & Laurajane Smith) intended to address how scholarly and professional activities in heritage studies have extended beyond the earlier focus on architectural and archaeological preservation of monuments and sites. Authors bring together a body of international work on management of the heritage values of cultural landscapes in Australia, China, Cambodia, Canada, Germany, India, Japan, Indonesia, the Pacific Islands, the Philippines, Thailand, and the USA; additionally an outline of the deepening interest in historic urban landscapes and a critical review of the factors behind the removal of Dresden’s cultural landscape from World Heritage listing are covered.

Cook I C & Taylor K. A., Contemporary Guide to Cultural Mapping – An ASEAN-Australia Perspective, Jakarta, ASEAN, 2011 (forthcoming)

Thompson, I.H., The English Lakes: A History, London: Bloomsbury, 2010

With more than 20 million visitors each year, the Lake District retains its fascination for people from all over Britain and abroad. Ian Thompson, who grew up in nearby Barrow-in-Furness and went fell-walking from an early age, is well-equipped to reveal the area’s allure. He tells how it was the chance combination of a fascination with the Alps and the outbreak of the Napoleonic wars that provided the spark for a national obsession. And in brief elegant chapters he shows how Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey and De Quincey transformed the perception of the region from one of ‘horrid mountains’ to ‘vales of peace’. Later the work of J. M. W. Turner, John Ruskin, Beatrix Potter, Arthur Ransome and Alfred Wainwright, the great populariser of fell-walking, all in their different ways contributed to making the region what it is today. Crammed with fascinating detail and illustrated with Thompson’s own superb colour photography and more than 80 other colour illustrations,

Thompson, I.H., Rethinking Landscape, London: Routledge, 2008

Our landscapes have never failed to entice and capture the imagination of writers, painters and philosophers – and in turn their work has influenced our landscapes for centuries. This carefully selected collection of readings and commentary expertly guides you through the aesthetic, social, cultural and environmental foundations of our thinking about landscape, and explores the key writings which shaped the field in its emergence and maturity. Provoking thought and discussion, this book does not provide answers, and does not conclude with an infallible theory of landscape. But with a range of readings from Vitruvius to Jellicoe, from Burke to Berlin to Berleant, from the Picturesque to Phenomenology, every reader will find something here to set them thinking.

Balsby-Neilsen J, Dam T, Thompson, I.H, eds., European Landscape Architecture: best practice in detailing, Oxford: Routledge, 2007.

Drawing together case studies from all over Europe, this text explores the relationship between the overall idea of the landscape architecture for a site and the design of details. Examining concept sketches and design development drawings in relation to the details of the design, the book offers a more profound understanding of decision making through all stages of the design process. The book includes the study of the choice of materials and techniques of construction, and explores the cultural and symbolic significance of such choices, as well as questions of environmental sustainability. With projects analysed and evaluated here that have won international acclaim, or have been awarded national prizes, “European Landscape Architecture” is a core book in the study and understanding of the subject.

Thompson, I.H., The Sun King’s Garden: Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre and the Creation of the Gardens of Versailles, London: Bloomsbury, 2006.

Warmonger, womanizer, and autocrat, Louis XIV may also have been history’s most fanatical gardener. At Versailles, twelve miles outside Paris, France’s self-styled “Sun King” created not only Europe’s most lavish palace, but, beginning in 1661, the most extensive gardens the Western world has ever seen. Assisting Louis in this enterprise was the low-born gardener André Le Nôtre, whose character and temperament were as different from those of his sovereign as it is possible to conceive. Where Louis was ruthless and relentlessly driven, Le Nôtre was down to earth, witty and amiable – and also phenomenally talented. While Louis could strike fear into the highest in the land with just a look, Le Nôtre enjoyed the king’s trust and friendship for more than 40 years. In this lavishly illustrated book, Ian Thompson tells more comprehensively than ever before the intertwined stories of an extraordinary garden and an extraordinary friendship.

Collins, T., Goto, R.,’‘LIVING Things – The ethical, aesthetic impulse’ in Brady, E. and Pheminster, P. eds., Embodied Values and the Environment. London: Springer-Verlag, 2011 (forthcoming)

In this paper, Collins and Goto track the evolution of a specific ‘ethical, aesthetic impulse’ in environmental art practice. This is the move by artists towards nature as a context and subject for work that addresses ethical ideas and aesthetic opportunities in relationship to a changing environment. In the pages that follow they consider the work as practitioners informed by philosophy, and conclude as practitioners informed by artwork. They come to this pursuit of the ‘ethical, aesthetic impulse’ through practice-led research and specific reflection upon previous experiences in Allegheny County Pennsylvania. It was in Pennsylvania that Collins and Goto were first immersed in a process of ‘make aesthetic sense’ of a changing post-industrial landscape.

Collins, T., ‘3 Rivers 2nd Nature 2000-2005, Water, Land & Dialogue’. Revue d’art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, 35(3), 2010.

3 Rivers 2nd Nature, 2000-2005: Water, Land & Dialogue was a five year artist initiated research project, which examined the aesthetic form, function and values that underpinned the meaning of nature in Allegheny County which has Pittsburgh PA at its centre. The paper focuses upon the changing ecologies of post-industrial waterfronts and stream valleys. Providing an overview of the theory and method which informs this artist led research; it describes very practical work on water issues and land issues and an integrated cultural dialogue which was at the same time local and international. The work has had real impact which is presented in the conclusion. Read in relationship to Lora Senechal Carney’s paper on Nine Mile Run; this practice-led approach to research is interrogated through critical distance as well as critical proximity. It is an ideal situation when the work engenders such scrutiny.

Collins, T. ‘Can or should artists attempt to creative verifiable change?’ In O’Reilly, S., Beauchamp, P. eds., Sense in Place, Site-ations International. Cardiff, Wales: Centre for Research in Art and Design, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, and Dublin: Dublin Institute of Technology DIT, Ireland. 2008

The work occurs in the context of the post industrial public realm. The author i interested in the concept of transformative knowledge, critical ideas that have the potential to shape public debate. The question is what is known and what is not known? What information is missing in the oppositional discourse between vested interest and subordinate activists? How can artists and activists shift (help shift?) the public debate? Does entry into this debate demand new levels of creative responsibility and consistency of intent and action? Is it possible to still make art when working under such a brief? The paper outlines ideas of shared and distributed freedoms, creative dialogue and a welcome forecast of the collapse of the subject-object approach to aesthetics. The papers references work with interdisciplinary project teams in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania and examples from colleagues in the areas of art, ecology and social practice to explicate the application of propositionally relevant theory and critical analysis.

Tarr, J, Muller, T. and Collins, T. ‘Pittsburgh’s Three Rivers from Industrial to Environmental Infrastructure’. In Mauch, C. and Zeller, T. eds. Rivers in History: Designing and Conceiving Waterways in Europe and North America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008

Like most river cities in Europe and America, Pittsburgh has looked upon its three principal [waterways] —the Allegheny, the Monongahela, and the Ohio—as invaluable natural resources to be used in support of economic development and municipal services. These urban rivers have always been as much a part of Pittsburgh’s infrastructure as its highways, railroads, mass-transportation lines, or electrical grids. For decades many of the natural features of these river systems were subsumed and in some cases destroyed by human activities. Despite these losses, the riparian ecosystems adapted, survived, and now flourish as part of a new vision for the region’s future.

Collins, T. ‘Art nature and aesthetics in the post industrial public realm’. In France, R. ed. Healing Nature, Repairing Relationships: Restoring Ecological Spaces and Consciousness. Chicago, ILL: Green Frigate Books, 2008

The author examines art and aesthetics for concepts and tools that can inform an ecologically and socially engaged art practice. Beginning by locating this discussion in the public realm and describing its relationship to nature; the author then provides a brief history of both the applied and cultural ecologies as a background for new ideas about radical cultural ecology and its relationship to an emerging area of art practice. The author defines and describes an informed multidisciplinary eco-art practice that seeks to integrate nature and culture, expanding on the ideas outlined by Jill Braun in Chapter 8. The paper defines strategic points of engagement for the eco-artist as interface, perception and human values. In the final section on aesthetics the author argues that traditional aesthetics with its focus on fine-art has lost the interest of most practicing artists, its discourse being tedious and circular. In contrast the author maintains that environmental aesthetics has the potential to awaken this sleeping dragon, (traditional aesthetics) and put it back into the world in meaningful ways. In conclusion concepts and tools are extracted that are most relevant to artists interested in shaping the attendant metaphors, symbols and narratives that define post-industrial nature.

Taylor, K. ‘Landscape and Meaning: Context for a global discourse on cultural landscapes values’ in Taylor, K. and Lennon, J., Managing Cultural Landscapes¸ London and NY, Routledge, 2011 (forthcoming)

The cultural landscape construct proposes that heritage places are not isolated islands and that there is an interdependence between people, social structures and the landscape. Inextricably linked to this cultural concept of landscape is that one of our deepest needs is for a sense of identity and belonging and a common denominator in this is human attachment to landscape and how we find identity in landscape and place. This chapter reviews emerging trends in the non-monumental cultural landscape approach; reflects on how the innovative ideas of cultural geographers and anthropologists from the late nineteenth/early twentieth century through the twentieth century shifted intellectual discussion on landscape from physical determinant to cultural construct creating a context for a global cultural landscape discourse; and reflects on the opportunities for WH cultural landscape work in Asia.

Taylor, K. ‘Heritage Challenges in Asian Urban Cultural Landscape Settings’ in Daly P & Winter, T, eds., Heritage in Asia: Converging Forces and Conflicting Values, 2011 (forthcoming)

Many of Asia’s cities are witnessing profound structural changes as their populations expand at ever increasing rates, with development fuelled by aspirations for modernisation and an array of new consumer economies such as tourism. The challenge of this change and conflict over values throughout Asia is reflected in the 2007 Seoul Declaration on Heritage and the Metropolis in Asia and the Pacific. Such initiatives reflect an expansion of the horizons from dealing mainly with monuments and famous historic buildings to acknowledging the significance of vernacular urban settings and their associated social community structures. Furthermore, the concept of Historic Urban Landscapes (HULs) is now being offered as a more holistic approach to conservation. Nonetheless, much of the effort in historic urban conservation at the international scale has been directed at preventing or minimising modern developments impinging on the visual and physical integrity of historic urban areas. And given that much of the thinking and effort on urban conservation has been driven by World Heritage considerations, historic zones outside such parameters of governance and oversight remain even more vulnerable. Against such developments, this chapter critically explores the merits and pitfalls of advancing participation frameworks. But in societies characterized by steep institutional hierarchies of power, what form can paradigms of consultation and decentralization effectively take? And in contexts where civil society infrastructures remain partial at best, how can agencies concerned with conservation contribute to the everyday social capital of urban communities? In considering such issues, this chapter seeks to add clarity to the ongoing debates concerning the conservation of urban environments in Asia.

Taylor, K. and Lennon, J., ‘Cultural landscapes: A bridge between culture and nature?’ International Journal of Heritage Studies (special theme issue: Preserving Biocultural Diversity on a Landscape Scale: The Roles of Local, National and International Designations), 2011 (forthcoming)

Cultural landscapes were (still are) intended to increase awareness that heritage places (sites) are not isolated islands and that there is an interdependence of people, social structures and the landscape and associated ecological systems. The paper explores whether the recognition of the 1992 World Heritage Cultural Landscape Categories, the IUCN Protected landscapes and the 2005 merging of cultural and natural criteria for World Heritage purposes have been effective in bridging the gap between culture and nature philosophically and in practice. With particular reference to opportunities presented in the Asia-Pacific region where traditionally culture and nature are not regarded as separate, people are part of nature, the paper will further critically review the nature-culture link and its implications for North American-style national parks where cultural associations may not be seen to be necessary or even desirable. It suggests the imperative of highlighting and respecting in heritage nominations and inscriptions deep cultural associations of traditional communities with natural sites and implications for management to protect cultural and biological diversity and the need for thematic studies.

Waterton, E. 2005 ‘Whose sense of place? Reconciling archaeological perspectives with community values: Cultural landscapes in England’. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11(4): 309-326.

Like other forms of heritage, landscape provides a vital repository of cultural meaning in relation to identity, belonging and sense of place. Despite this, the process of heritage management tends to obscure these links between landscapes and communities, and is thus neglectful of the experiences, perspectives and recollections that both individuals and groups bring to their engagement with heritage. This paper draws on the Hareshaw Linn community project to illustrate the diverse ways in which communities construct relationships with landscape. This case study serves as a reminder that the heritage management process cannot usefully be reduced to the technical and scientific practice it is often assumed to be, as it is often both emotional and conflict ridden. In light of this, it is essential to question why landscape is underplayed in legislation and public policy, and this necessarily entails the exploration of issues such as ownership, power, knowledge and ‘public’ heritage.

Young, R.N and Koch, H. ‘A digitally produced urban land use map of South Sefton Southport, Birkdale and Ainsdale (with legend of 165 categories)’. Mapped over Cities Revealed Imagery 1999 in Map Maker Pro for export to Map lnfo. Client: Sefton MBC May 2001.

This study of Liverpool and areas to the north was associated with ‘single budget regeneration areas’. The outcome was an intensely detailed (but wholly sortable) map of urban land uses as many as 100 units/km2, and was a primary indicator of the complexity (or otherwise) of an urban landscape much of which had been created in the 1850s and having decayed was being redeveloped. An important source in the consideration of urban landscape as observed from the ground.

Young, R.N. and Koch, H. ‘The age and construction type of housing in London: London Borough of Brent London Borough of Camden and parts of Southwark’. For the GeoInformation Group, Cambridge, December 2001 (housing mapped into eight age categories and twenty categories of type).

The first study of its kind and dependent on a thorough knowledge of UK housing types supplemented by a mineralogically informed ‘order of crystallisation’. Available digitally.

Young, R.N. and Koch, H. ‘The Greenspaces of Bristol over 2200 spaces mapped and classified in 20 categories’. Prepared digitally in Map Maker Pro, over UK Perspectives Imagery (1999) for Environment Transport and Leisure, The City of Bristol, April 2001.

This study and others led to a valuable fine grained classification of greenspaces not until then analysed in such detail.

Young, R.N. Landscapes of the Bahamas and their unexplained relationship to sea level change.  GeoMed 2013, Kemer Turkey June 2013. Available in the online proceedings.

This paper, based on a 3 year study of  10 Bahama Islands, uses both airphoto interpretation and close field sampling of the pine covered islands to describe prior environments of tidal marsh now dry land by their sedimentary type (limestone lithofacies) making the comparison between a part of North Andros Island and Shroud Key. Airphoto interpretation of  Cat Island landscapes of dune formation subject to Atlantic winds at the edge of the shallow Bahama Banks were interpreted by lithology and shape and were shown to form an accretionary succession (in many phases) which related to different sea levels. While work has been done on dune succession and chronology in the Southern Bahamas  this has up till now focused on the stratigraphy of individual sites. Those studies however have identified and dated a wealth of sea level change.

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